provided by David Thompson

Background


On July 14, 1934 the Reich Cabinet enacted a "Law for Averting Hereditarily Diseased Progeny", legalized forced sterilization.

On July 25, 1933 the Reich Cabinet published a law providing for the compulsary sterilization of men and women suffering from certain hereditary diseases. (Into That Darkness 60-61)

On October 8, 1935 the Reich Cabinet enacted a "Law to Safeguard the Hereditary Health of the German People," which legalized abortion in cases of pregnancy where either of the parents suffered from certain hereditary diseases. (Into That Darkness 62)

On September 1, 1939, Adolf Hitler signed an order giving the Chief of the Fuehrer Chancellory, Reichsleiter Philip Bouhler, and Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician, the power "to widen the authority of individual doctors with a view to enabling them, after the most critical examination in the realm of human knowledge, to administer to incurably sick persons a mercy death"--in other words, a euthanasia program. (Hilberg 561)

Administration


Bouhler and Dr. Brandt coordinated the euthanasia program with Dr. Herbert Linden, the Reich Interior Ministry's head of the Heredity and Race sub-department of the Department of National Health and plenipotentiary for state hospitals and nursing homes (Reichsbeauftrager fuer die Heil-und Pflegeanstalten). (Friedlander 65) Bouhler and Dr. Brandt then compiled a list of physicians to administer the program, which was code-named "T-4." (Friedlander 66) The code-name or euphemism for the killings themselves was "disinfection." (Nazi Mass Murder 35)

Dr. Werner Heyde, professor of neurology and psychiatry at Wuerzberg University, was the first medical director of the program. He was later succeeded by Dr. Paul Nitsche, professor of neurology and psychiatry at Halle University, the program's senior expert. Dr. Carl Schneider, professor of neurology and psychiatry at Heidelberg University, also participated in the program. (Nazi Mass Murder 15) Other physicians included Dr. Ernst Wentzler, Dr. Hellmuth Unger, University of Berlin psychiatry professor Dr. Max de Crinis, Jena University psychiatry professor Dr. Berthold Kihn, Dr. Valentin Faltlhauser, Dr. Hans Heinze, Dr. Hermann Pfannmueller and Dr. Bender from the Buch State Hospital in Berlin. (Friedlander 66)

SS-Oberfuehrer Viktor Brack (code-name "Jennerwein"), a civil servant on the Fuehrer Chancellery staff, was responsible for making the decisions as to who would be killed in the euthanasia program. Brack's deputy was Werner Blankenburg (code-name "Brenner"), who also participated in the decisions. (Nazi Mass Murder 24; Friedlander 67)

The Criminal Technology Institute of the Reich Criminal Police Department had the responsibility for deciding the method to be used in killing the patients. (Nazi Mass Murder 26) The Institute was headed by SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Hesse. (Hilberg 184-185) (Friedlander 55 gives the name and rank as SS-Standartenfuehrer und Kriminaldirektor Dr. Walter Heess.) SS-Untersturmfuehrer Dr. August Becker of the Criminal Technology Institute was responsible for the delivery of the carbon monoxide gas which was used in the euthanasia killings. (Nazi Mass Murder 30-31) SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer Dr. Albert Widmann, the head of the chemistry section of the Criminal Technology Institute, provided the poison gas. (Friedlander 55)

Transportation to the euthanasia facilities was handled by the Charitable Society for the Transportation of the Sick (Gekrat), headed by Reinhold Vorberg (code-name "Hintertal"), the administrative director of the Fuehrer Chancellory. (Nazi Mass Murder 17-18) Dietrich Allers, the director of the Central Compensation Office for Sanatoria and Nursing Homes, handled the bookkeeping and allocation of expenses amongst the various facilities after 1940. Allers succeeded Gerhard Bohne in the position. (Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 69)

The euthanasia program included children. This portion of the program was supervised by the chief of the Reich Committee for the Scientic Registration of Severe Hereditary Ailments, Hans Hefelmann. Hefelmann was later succeeded by Richard von Hegener. (Friedlander 74)

Euthanasia Facilities


Bernburg-an-der-Saale -- Drs. Irmfried Eberl (code-name "Dr. Schneider" and perhaps "Dr. Meyer"), Heinrich Bunke (code-names "Dr. Rieper" and "Dr. Keller") and Kurt Borm (code-name "Dr. Storm") were the heads of the euthanasia program at this facility. (Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 89, 103) It was taken over by the euthanasia program in September of 1940. (Friedlander 92)

Brandenburg-Havel -- This facility became active in late 1939 in an old prison building in Berlin. The construction of the killing facilities were supervised by Adolf Gustav Kaufmann. (Friedlander 89) Dr. Irmfried Eberl was the director of Brandenburg-Havel, succeeded by Dr. Heinrich Bunke and Dr. Aquilin Ullrich (code-name "Dr. Schmitt"). (Friedlander 89, 103) The asylum was closed in November of 1940 and the patients transferred to the killing facility at Bernburg-an-der-Saale. (Nazi Mass Murder 18)

Grafeneck Castle -- Originally operated by the Samaritan Foundation in Stuttgart, the T-4 program took over the building for euthanasia purposes in October of 1939. It began killing operations in January of 1940. Dr. Horst Schumann was director of Grafeneck asylum, later succeeded by Dr. Ernst Baumhard (code-name "Dr. Jaeger") and Dr. Guenther Hennecke (perhaps code-named "Dr. Ott"). (Friedlander 89, 103) It was closed in December of 1940 and replaced by the asylum at Hadamar. (Nazi Mass Murder 18-19, 27)

Hadamar -- This asylum, located near Limburg-an-der-Lahn, began killing operations in January of 1941. Dr. Ernst Baumhardt was the director of Hademar, followed by Drs. Guenther Hennecke, Friedrich Berner (code-name "Dr. Barth") and Hans-Bobo Gorgass (code-name "Dr. Kramer"). (Friedlander 89, 103) In the summer of 1941 Dr. Friedrich Berner celebrated the gassing of the 10,000th patient at Hadamar. (Nazi Mass Murder 19, 36-37)

Hartheim Castle -- This asylum was located near Linz, on the Danube. It was in operation by May of 1940 at the latest, and its director was Dr. Rudolf Lonauer, followed by Dr. Georg Renno. (Nazi Mass Murder 18-19; Friedlander 89, 103)

Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna -- This asylum began killing operations in April of 1940, under director Dr. Horst Schumann. Dr. Schumann was succeeded by Dr. Kurt Borm, Dr. Klaus Endruweit (code-name "Dr. Bader"), Dr. Kurt Schmalenbach (perhaps code-named "Dr. Blume") and Dr. Ewald Worthmann. (Nazi Mass Murder 19; Friedlander 89, 103)
Operations

Adolf Hitler's euthanasia program experienced its first successful experiment with poison gas on January 4, 1940, after a number of murders by injection. The gassing experiment took place at Brandenburg asylum, not far from Berlin, and was described by Dr. August Becker of the Criminal Technical Institute (KTI) of the German police:

I was ordered by [Reichsamtsleiter Viktor] Brack to attend the first euthanasia experiment in the Brandenburg asylum near Berlin. I went to the asylum in the first half of January 1940. Additional building work had been carried out especially for the purpose. There was a room similar to a shower room which was approximately 3 metres by 5 metres and 3 metres high and tiled. There were benches round the room and a water pipe about 1" in diameter ran along the wall about 10 cm off the floor. There were small holes in this pipe from which the carbon monoxide gas poured out. The gas cylinders stood outside this room and were already connected up to the pipe. The work on this installation had been carried out by the SS Main Building Office in Berlin . . . .

There were already two mobile crematoria in the asylum with which to burn the corpses. There was a rectangular peephole in the entrance door, which was constructed like an air raid shelter door, through which the delinquents could be observed. The first gassing was carried out by Dr. [Albert] Widmann personally. He turned the gas tap and regulated the amount of gas . . . .

As far as I can remember, among the prominent personalities who were there were: the doctors already mentioned, Professor Dr. [Karl] Brandt, the Fuehrer's personal physician, and a detective [Kriminalkommissar SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer Christian], Wirth, at that time head of the homicide branch in the Stuttgart police department and later head of the Hartheim asylum near Linz. For this first gassing about 18-20 people were led into this 'shower room' by the nursing staff. These men had to undress in an anteroom until they were completely naked. The doors were shut behind them. These people went quietly into the room and showed no signs of being upset. Dr Widmann operated the gas. I could see through the peephole that after about a minute the people had collapsed or lay on the benches. There were no scenes and no disorder.

After a further five minutes the room was ventilated. Specially assigned SS people collected the dead on special stretchers and took them to the crematoria. When I say special stretchers I mean stretchers specially constructed for this purpose. They could be placed directly on the ovens and the corpses could be pushed into the oven mechanically by means of a device without the people carrying them coming into contact with the corpse. These ovens and the stretchers were also constructed in Brack's department . . . .

Following this successful test, Brack -- who was naturally also present and whom I forgot to mention -- said a few words. He expressed satisfaction with the test and emphasized once again that this action must only be carried out by doctors according to the motto -- 'syringes are a matter for doctors'. Finally, Dr. Brandt spoke and reiterated that doctors alone should carry out this gassing. (Nazism 2, #739)

On March 19, 1940, Theophil Wurm, the Protestant Bishop of Wuerttemberg, sent an outraged letter of protest to Reich Interior Minister Dr. Wilhelm Frick, condemning the Nazi euthanasia program. (Into That Darkness 74)

By June of 1940, the practice of stealing gold fillings from the teeth of Jewish mental patients, killed in the euthanasia program, had already begun among the SS (Schutzstaffel or Elite Guard) units responsible for administering the program. (Fleming 24)

The Bishop of the Wuertemberg Evangelical Provincial Church wrote a letter to Reich Minister of the Interior Dr. Wilhelm Frick on July 19, 1940, complaining about the murders of patients in Germany's euthanasia program:

For some months past, insane, feeble-minded and epileptic patients of state and private medical establishments have been transferred to another institution on the orders of the Reich Defense Council. Their relatives, even when the patient was kept at their cost, are not informed of the transfer until after it has taken place. Mostly they are informed a few weeks later that the patient concerned had died of an illness, and that, owing to the danger of infection, the body had to be cremated. On a superficial estimate several hundred patients from institutions in Wuerttemberg alone must have met their death in this way, among them war-wounded of the Great War.

Owing to numerous inquiries from town and country and from the most variegated circles, I consider it my duty to point out to the Reich Government that this affair is causing a particular stir in our small province. Firstly because one of the institutions concerned, Grafeneck castle, to which the patients are delivered and where a crematorium and registrar's office have been set up, is in Wuerttemberg . . . . The castle lies on a height on the Swabian Alb in a sparsely populated forest district. With all the more attention does the population of the surrounding area follow the events that take place there. The transports of sick persons who are unloaded at the small railway station of Marback a.L., the buses with opaque windows which bring sick persons from more distant railway stations or directly from the institutions, the smoke which rises from the crematorium and which can be noticed even from a considerable distance--all this gives all the more rise to speculation as no one is allowed into the castle . . . . The manner [emphasis in original] of action is already sharply criticized in these circles; there is much talk, in particular, of deceptions which occur in this connection. Everybody is convinced that the causes of deaths which are published officially are selected at random. When, to crown everything, regret is expressed in the obituary notice that all endeavors to preserve the patient's life were in vain, this is felt as a mockery. But is, above all, the air of mystery which gives rise to the thought that something is happening that is contrary to justice and ethics and cannot therefore be defended by the Government with full publicity like other necessary and severe war measures. This point is continually stressed -- by simple people as well -- in numerous written and oral statements which come to us. It also appears that very little care was taken, at the first at any rate, in the selection of the patients destined for annihilation. They did not limit themselves to insane persons, but included also persons capable of work, especially among the epileptics . . . .

I can imagine, Mr. Minister, that this protest will be regarded as embarrassing. Hardly dare I express the hope, either, that my voice will be heard. If, nevertheless, I have made this declaration, I have done so primarily because the relations of the compatriots affected expect such action from the leaders of a church. I am also, however, moved by the thought that his action may perhaps give rise to a serious examination and to the abandonment of this path. Dixi et salvari animam meam! (Tyranny on Trial 323)

The supervisor of the sanatorium for mental patients and epileptics at Stehn, Germany (now a part of Poland), protested against the Nazi euthanasia program in a September 6, 1940 letter to the Reich Minister of Justice, Dr. Franz Guertner:

The measures which are at present being applied to mental patients of all kinds have led to the rise of a feeling of absolute legal insecurity among wide circles of the population. Such patients are transferred from the institutions, without obtaining the consent of their relations or guardians, to other institutions from which after a short time notification follows that the persons concerned have died of some kind of disease. In view of the multitude of death notifications, the people are convinced that these patients are done away with . . . .
Because of the absolute secrecy and impenetrability in which measures are carried out; not only the wildest rumours arise among the people (for instance, that people who cannot work because of age or wounds received in the Great War, have been done away with or are also to be done away with), but also they get the impression that the selection of the persons affected by this measure is done in a completely arbitrary manner.
If the State really wants to carry out the extermination of these patients or certain kinds of mental diseases, should not a clear law--openly accounted for to the people--be published, a law which would give every single person the guarantee of a careful examination of his liability to die or right to live, and would also give relatives the chance to be heard, as in the case of the law for the prevention of the transmission of hereditary diseases?
With regard to the other patients entrusted to our institutions, I urgently beg you to do all you can to get the execution of these measures suspended, at least until a clear legal position has been created. (Terror on Trial 324)

SS-Gruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, the Higher SS and Police Leader in the Wartheland, a part of Nazi-annexed Poland, reported to SS-Gruppenfuehrer  Jakob Sporrenberg on October 18, 1940 that

the so-called Sonderkommando Lange, assigned to me for special tasks, was detached to Soldau in East Prussia from 21 May to 8 June, 1940, as per agreement with the Reich Main Security Office [RSHA]. During this period, it successfully evacuated 1,558 mental patients from the Soldau transit camp.

The surrounding facts, circumstances and related correspondence make it clear that this "evacuation" was, in fact, an execution of mental patients who had been transferred from eastern Prussian hospitals to the concentration camp at Soldau. (Fleming 21)

The Vatican published a statement condemning euthanasia on December 2, 1940, without mentioning the Nazi program of exterminating mentally ill patients in Germany:

The direct killing of an innocent person because of mental or physical defects is not allowed. With the decree of 2 December 1940 the Holy Office replies to the following

Question: Whether it is permissible on the basis of an order by the state authority directly to kill those who, although they have not committed a crime worthy of death, nevertheless cannot be of any further use to the nation and are rather a burden for the nation and an hindrance to its energy and strength.

Answer: No, since it is against the natural and positive law of God. His Holiness Pope Pius XII has approved and confirmed this decision of the cardinals in his audience on 1 December and ordered its publication. (Nazism 2, #757)

On March 9, 1941 Konrad von Preysing, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Berlin, delivered a sermon from the pulpit of St. Hedwig's Cathedral attacking the Nazi euthanasia program. (Into That Darkness 74-5)

During the summer of 1941, on a train trip through the town of Hof, near Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler's coach was delayed while some mental patients were loaded onto trucks. An outraged crowd jeered at the Fuehrer for his euthanasia program. (Into That Darkness 59)

On August 13, 1941 the Bishop of Limburg, Germany, wrote a personal letter protesting the Nazi euthanasia program to the Reich Minister of Justice:

All God-fearing men consider this destruction of helpless beings as crass injustice. And if anybody says that Germany cannot win the war, if there is yet a just God, these expressions are not the result of a lack of love of fatherland but of a deep concern for our people. The population cannot grasp that systematic actions are carried out which in accordance with Par. 211 [the murder statute] of the German criminal code are punishable with death! High authority as a moral concept has suffered a severe shock as a result of these happenings. The official notice that N. N. had died of a contagious disease and that for that reason his body has to be burned, no longer finds credence, and such official notices which are no longer believed have further undermined the ethical value of the concept of authority.

Officials of the Secret State Police, it is said, are trying to suppress discussion of the Hadamar [a mental hospital and euthanasia facility] occurrences by means of severe threats. In the interest of public peace, this may be well intended. But the knowledge and the conviction and the indignation of the population cannot be changed by it; the conviction will be increased with the bitter realization that discussion is prohibited with threats but that the actions themselves are not prosecuted under penal law.

I beg you most humbly, Herr Reich Minister, in the sense of the report of the Episcopate of July 16 of this year, to prevent further transgressions of the Fifth Commandment of God. (Terror on Trial 325-6)

By order of Adolf Hitler dated August 24, 1941, his euthanasia order of September 1, 1939 was rescinded. The euthanasia operation, termed "Aktion T4," was disbanded on August 28, 1941 after taking a toll of 90,000 lives. 80,000 of the murdered victims were mental patients and 10,000 were concentration camp prisoners subjected to "special treatment." (Fleming 23)

In his Pastoral Letter "Mystici Corporis," Pope Pius XII spoke out against euthanasia on June 29, 1943. (Into That Darkness 76)

In a pastoral letter on September 12, 1943, all of the Roman Catholic Bishops of Germany joined in condemning euthanasia, as well as the murder of "innocent hostages, prisoners of war or penal institutions, and human beings of foreign race or extraction." (Into That Darkness 72)

Euthanasia in Concentration Camps


The euthanasia program also murdered concentration camp prisoners who were unfit for work. This started in the spring of 1941, after Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler worked out an agreement with SS-Oberfuehrer Viktor Brack of the Fuehrer Chancellory. (Nazi Mass Murder 40) The prisoners were selected for killing by Medical Commissions which consisted of physicians.

The physicians identified as participating in the Medical Commission selections included:

Dr. Friedrich Mennecke, (Nazi Mass Murder 40)
Reichsleiter Philip Bouhler
Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician
Dr. August Becker of the Criminal Technical Institute (KTI) of the German police
[Reichsamtsleiter Viktor] Brack
Dr. [Albert] Widmann

Euthanasia Personnel


Allers, Dietrich -- director of the Central Compensation Office for Sanatoria and Nursing Homes; handled the bookkeeping and allocation of expenses amongst the various euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) killing facilities after 1940 (Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 69) {probably identifiable with "All., August Eduard Ernst Dietrich", arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of participation in the killing of mentally ill patients as part of the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) 1939-1945 while serving in the Fuehrer Chancellery (Kanzlei des Führers), and with participation in the killings of unfit and invalid prisoners in German concentration camps in special handling action "14f13" (Sonderbehandlungsaktion '14f13'); convicted and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.697; LG Frankfurt/M. 681220; BGH 721027).}

Assam-Bruckmuller, Dr. Irene

Baumert, Dr. _____

Baumhard, Dr. Ernst – director, (under the code-name "Dr. Jaeger"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck Castle euthanasia facility 1940; director, HuPa Hadamar euthanasia facility Jan 1941 (Friedlander 89, 103; Nazi Mass Murder 18-19, 27)

Bayer, Dr. Wilhelm

Becker, Dr. August [SS-Untersturmführer] -- RSHA technical expert, Criminal Technology Institute of the Reich Criminal Police Department; responsible for maintaining the death vans of the SS; also responsible for the delivery of the carbon monoxide gas which was used in the euthanasia killings (Aktion T-4) {declared unfit to stand trial for war crimes in 1960 by a West German Court. (Good Old Days 289; Nazi Mass Murder 30-31).}

Bender, Dr. _____ -- service, Buch State Hospital in Berlin; participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Berner, Dr. Friedrich – director (under the codename "Dr. Barth"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar euthanasia facility; celebrated the gassing of the 10,000th patient at Hadamar summer 1941 (Friedlander 89, 103; Nazi Mass Murder 19, 36-37)

Blankenburg, Werner (?-1957) – deputy Chief Administrative Officer, Chancellery of the Fuehrer of the NSDAP (Oberdienstleiter, Kanzlei des Fűhrers der NSDAP) (SS-Oberfuehrer Viktor Brack); under code-name "Brenner", participated in making the decisions as to who would be killed in the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Nazi Mass Murder 24; Friedlander 67)]

Blum, Philipp -- undertaker, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {indicted by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden 19 Sept 1945 on charges of murdering Russian and Polish POWs at Hadamar between 1 Jul 1944 and 1 Apr 1945 (NYT 9 Oct 1945:3:2; NYT 10 Oct 1945:8:6; NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5; NYT 12 Oct 1945:10:2; NYT 13 Oct 1945:6:3; NYT 16 Oct 1945:6:6); convicted of war crimes 15 Oct 1945 and sentenced to 30 years imprisonment at hard labor (LT 16 Oct 1945:4:d; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression VI, pps. 296-298 [Document 3592-PS]).}

Bohne, Dr. med. Gerhard (c. 1903-?) – director, Central Compensation Office for Sanatoria and Nursing Homes to 1940; handled the bookkeeping and allocation of expenses amongst the various euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) killing facilities to 1940 {charged by German authorities with war crimes arising out of the killings of 15,000 mentally and physically handicapped people in the euthanasia program; fled Germany summer 1963 (NYT 18 Feb 1964:3:6); arrested in Argentina and held for extradition to West Germany at Buenos Aires 9 Mar 1964 (NYT 10 Mar 1964:7:3); plea for asylum rejected by Argentina 6 May 1964 (NYT 7 May 1964:5:3); decision to extradite to West Germany announced 26 Oct 1966 by Argentine government (NYT 27 Oct 1966:14:5); extradited 11 Nov 1966 (NYT 12 Nov 1966:16:7); subsequent disposition unknown; possibly identifiable with "Bo., Dr.med. Kurt Walter Werner", put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing and assisting in the killing of mentally ill patients at HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Bernburg and HuPA Sonnenstein between Dec 1940 and Aug 1941; acquitted (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.774; LG Frankfurt/M. 720606; BGH 740320). (Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 69).}

Borkowski, Margarethe Hermine – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 2 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Borm, Dr. med. Kurt (c. 1910-?) [SS-Obersturmführer] – director (under code-name "Dr. Storm"), HuPa Bernburg-an-der-Saale euthanasia facility 1940; director and head of the "killing service", HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main 1972 on charges of complicity in the euthanasia murders of thousands of mentally ill persons at the HuPa Sonnenstern, Saxony, in 1940; acquitted 6 Jun 1972 (NYT 7 Jun 1972:26:7); acquittal upheld on appeal by the Federal Supreme Court 20 Mar 1974 (Hitler's Justice p. 255). (Nazi Mass Murder 18, 19; Friedlander 89, 103).}

Bouhler, Dr. Philipp (1899-1945) [SS-Obergruppenführer] -- WWI veteran; joined NSDAP 1921; Geschäftsführer, NSDAP (Party Business Manager) 1925-1934; Police President (Polizeipräsident), Munich 1934; Reichstag deputy 1933-May 1945; member, Reich Culture Senate (Reichskultursenat); Chief of Adolf Hitler's personal chancellory (Chef, Führerkanzlei) 1934-1945 {suicide 10 May 1945 with his wife at Alt Aussee (ABR-SS); at Zell-am-See (SS: Roll of Infamy p. 19); just before arrival of American troops (Who's Who pps. 25-26) or captured by American troops; took poison en route to Dachau internment camp 19 May 1945 (Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 103-4). (Snyder p. 37; Into That Darkness p. 49; ABR-SS).}

Brack, Viktor (1904-1948) [SS-Oberfűhrer] -- Chief Administrative Officer, Chancellery of the Fuehrer of the NSDAP (Oberdienstleiter, Kanzlei des Fűhrers der NSDAP); under code-name "Jennerwein" Brack was responsible for making the decisions as to who would be killed in the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4); directed the construction of death camps in Poland while he was serving in the Reich Chancellery (Snyder Ency 37-38) {put on trial (NYT 18 Dec 1946:24:4; NYT 11 Jan 1947:2:4; NYT 7 Mar 1947:5:7; convicted 19 Aug 1947 (NYT 20 Aug 1947:1:6) sentenced to death by hanging 20 Aug 1947 (NYT 21 Aug 1947:3:8; LT 21 Aug 1947:3d) by an American Military Tribunal in the "Doctors trial"; executed 2 Jun 1948 at Landsberg am Lech prison (Who's Who pps. 26-7; Snyder Ency p. 69; Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 105-6; Good Old Days p. 290; Nazi Mass Murder 24; Friedlander 67).}

Brandt, Prof. Dr. Karl (1904-1948) [SS-Gruppenfűhrer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS] -- Reich Commissioner for Health and Sanitation (Reichskommissar fuer Sanitaets-und Gesundheitswesen); member, Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat); personal physician to Adolf Hitler (Liebarzt Fűhrerhauptquartier) 20 Apr 1944-Apr 1945 {put on trial before an American military tribunal at Frankfort-am-Main 9 Dec 1946 (NYT 9 Dec 1946:8:6; NYT 10 Dec 1946:9:1; NYT 11 Dec 1946:25:3; NYT 18 Dec 1946:24:4; NYT 11 Jan 1947:2:4; NYT 7 Mar 1947:5:7; convicted 19 Aug 1947 (NYT 20 Aug 1947:1:6); sentenced to death 20 Aug 1947 (NYT 21 Aug 1947:3:8; LT 21 Aug 1947:3d) by an American Military Tribunal in the "Doctors trial"; hanged at Landsberg am Lech am Lech prison 2 Jun 1948 (LT 3 Jun 1948:3d; Snyder Ency p. 69; Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 106-7; SS: Roll of Infamy p. 20; ABR-SS; ABR-Croisier-SS).}

Bunke, Dr. Heinrich – director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Brandenburg-Havel euthanasia facility 1940; director (under code-names "Dr. Rieper" and "Dr. Keller"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Bernburg-an-der-Saale euthanasia facility c. 1940-1941 (Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 89, 103)

Catel, Prof. Dr. Werner

de Crinis, Prof. Dr. Max -- University of Berlin psychiatry professo; participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Eberl, Dr. Irmfried (1910-1948) [SS-Obersturmführer (The Camp Men p. 66) or SS-Untersturmführer (Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 213-4)] – director, HuPa Bernburg-an-der-Saale euthanasia facility 1940; director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Brandenburg-Havel euthanasia facility 1939-1940 (under code-name "Dr. Schneider" and perhaps "Dr. Meyer"); commandant, KL Treblinka 1942. {suicide in custody at Ulm 6 Feb 1948 (The Camp Men p. 66; Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 213-4). Nazi Mass Murder 18; Friedlander 89, 103}

Endruweit, Dr. Klaus – director (under the code-name "Dr. Bader"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna euthanasia facility (Nazi Mass Murder 19; Friedlander 89, 103)

Faultlhauser, Dr. Valentin -- physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck asylum {acquitted by a French (NYT 6 Jul 1949:9:6) or West German county court (Hitler's Justice pps. 255-6) at Tuebingen 5 Jul 1949 in the euthanasia deaths of patients at HuPa Grafeneck.}

Fauser, Dr. Martha -- euthanasia physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck {convicted 5 Jul 1949 by a French court at Tuebingen of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment (NYT 6 Jul 1949:9:6).}

Gorgass, Dr. med. Hans Bodo (c. 1910-?) – director (as superintending physician, using the codename "Dr. Kramer"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar euthanasia facility {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to death (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020); sentence commuted to life imprisonment 1949; released from custody 6 Feb 1958 (NYT 7 Feb 1958:7:3) (Friedlander 89, 103; Nazi Mass Murder 19, 36-37).}

Gross, Dr. med. Heinrich (c. 1915-?) physician, Am Steinhof Children's Hospital; participant, Euthanasia program ("Aktion T-4") {arrested and put on trial by an Austrian court for manslaughter 1951; convicted; conviction reversed on appeal; case eventually dropped; new trial on charges of killing handicapped children with luminol injections announced 24 Apr 1999 by Austrian Ministry of Justice; subsequent disposition unknown (Lancet, "Austria relives the past as doctor faces war-crimes trial", 24 Apr 1999).}

Grossmann, Dr. Wilhelm

Gumbmann, Käthe or Kaethe – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main for participation in the gassing and fatal injection deaths of mentally ill patients (Geisteskranke) as part of the euthanasia program between Jan 1940 and 1945 at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck, HuPa Hadamar, and HuPa Irsee; convicted and sentenced to 3 years and 1 months imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.042; LG Frankfurt/M. 480128).}

Hardt, Dr. med. L. -- service, HuPa Sonnenstein {arrested and put on trial by an East German court at Dresden on charges of killing mentally handicapped patients as part of the euthanasia (Aktion T-4) program; convicted and sentenced to death 10 Jul 1947; committed suicide in East German custody before execution of sentence (History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War p. 534, United Nations War Crimes Commission, London: HMSO, 1948).}

Härtle or Haertle, Benedikt – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 3 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Hebold, Dr. med. Otto – service, Aktion T-4 (euthanasia program); Vollstreckungsarzt at the Zuchthaus Brandenburg-Görden {arrested and put on trial by an East German court at Cottbus for crimes committed between May 1940-Mar 1943 and in 1944 at Berlin, KL Sachsenhausen, mental institution (HuPa) (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Bautzen-Seida, HuPa Bernburg, HuPa Eberswalde, HuPa Pfaffenrode, HuPa Schussenried, HuPa Sonnenstein, and Zuchthaus Brandenburg-Görden, consisting of the evaluation of approximately 6,000 registration forms for patients at mental institutions, the murders by gassing of 25,000 German and foreign patients at mental institutions in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Württemberg, Lippe-Detmold, Thüringen, Schlesien and Altmark, as well as "selektions" at KL Sachsenhausen (Aktion 14f13); convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment; dates of proceedings unknown but after 1955 (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.1061; LG/BG Cottbus 650712).}

Heess, Dr. Walter [SS-Standartenfuehrer und Kriminaldirektor (Friedlander 55) or SS-Sturmbannfuehrer (Hilberg 184-185)] – head of the Criminal Technology Institute of the Reich Criminal Police Department; responsible for deciding the method to be used in killing patients in the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Nazi Mass Murder 26; Friedlander 55; Hilberg 184-185)

Hefelmann, Dr. Hans (c. 1907-?) – official in "Hitler's Chancellery"; secretary-general of the Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Mentally Retarded Persons; service, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) as chief of the Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Severe Hereditary Ailments {postwar agriculture expert; charged by West German authorities with war crimes arising out of the euthanasia program; put on trial before a West German court at Limburg 18 Feb 1964 on charges of complicity in the deaths of 73,000 mentally ill persons (NYT 18 Feb 1964:3:6; NYT 25 Feb 1964:5:1; NYT 26 Feb 1964:13:3; NYT 24 Mar 1964:9:3; NYT 23 Apr 1964:5:7; NYT 6 May 1964:14:4); subsequent disposition unknown. (Friedlander 74).}

Hefter, Dr. Ernst

Heinze, Prof. Dr. Hans – participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

von Hegener, Richard -- chief of the Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Severe Hereditary Ailments; participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 74)

Hennecke, Dr. Guenther – director, (perhaps under the code-name "Dr. Ott"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck Castle euthanasia facility 1940; director HuPa Hadamar euthanasia facility (Friedlander 89, 103; Nazi Mass Murder 18-19, 27)

Heyde, Prof. Dr. Werner (1902-1964) [SS-Obersturmbannführer] -- service, KL Dachau; service, KL Buchenwald; service, KL Sachsenhausen; service, KL Oranienburg 1936-1939; director, Psychiatric and Neurological Clinic, Wuerzburg; director, Reich Work Group of Sanitaria and Nursing Homes (RAG) 1940-1941; professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Wurzburg; medical director, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) 1939-1941 {interned by British 1945; sentenced to death in absentia 1946; turned over to American authorities to testify in the "Doctors' Trial"; escaped from American custody 1947 and assumed the name "Fritz Sawade"; practised psychiatry in Flensburg; identity exposed and gave himself up to West German police 12 Nov 1959 (NYT 13 Nov 1959:5:6; NYT9 Apr 1961:23:1; Into That Darkness p. 57); committed suicide 13 Feb 1964 by hanging himself in his cell at Butzbach Prison, Germany, five days before trial on murder charges arising from his administration of the Nazi euthanasia program during World War II (NYT 18 Feb 1964:3:5; Who's Who 133-4; The Camp Men p. 108; Encylopedia of the Third Reich pps. 405-6; SS: Roll of Infamy pps. 69-70; Nazi Mass Murder p. 17; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression IV, p. 111; "Hitler's Legacy" Biographical index; Friedlander p. 66).}

Huber, Irmgard – service (as head nurse), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {indicted by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden 19 Sept 1945 on charges of murdering at least 400 Russian and Polish POWs at Hadamar between 1 Jul 1944 and 1 Apr 1945 (NYT 9 Oct 1945:3:2; NYT 10 Oct 1945:8:6; NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5; NYT 12 Oct 1945:10:2; NYT 13 Oct 1945:6:3; NYT 16 Oct 1945:6:6); convicted of war crimes 15 Oct 1945 and sentenced to 25 years imprisonment at hard labor (LT 16 Oct 1945:4:d; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression VI, pps. 296-298 [Document 3592-PS]); arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Illing, Dr. Ernest (?-1946) – physician, HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Steinhof mental hospital near Vienna; head physician at Am Spiegelgrund Children's Euthanasia Ward, Vienna; assistant to Prof. Dr. Hans Heinze at the children's euthanasia institution, Brandenburg-Goerden {sentenced 19 Jul 1946 to death by hanging by the Vienna People's Court for the murders of more than 240 mentally defective children at the Vienna municipal clinic (NYT 20 Jul 1946:5:4; LT 20 Jul 1946:4c); subsequently executed (ABR-T-4; Lancet, "Austria relives the past as doctor faces war-crimes trial", 24 Apr 1999).}

Jekelius, Dr. Erwin

Kaufmann, Adolf Gustav – supervisor of construction of the killing facilities at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Brandenburg-Havel 1939 (Friedlander 89)

Kihn, Prof. Dr. Berthold – Jena University psychiatry professor; participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Klein, Alfons -- administrator, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hademar euthanasia facility {put on trial Oct 1945 by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden for murdering Russian and Polish workers by injection; verdict and subsequent fate unknown (NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5).}

Kloos, Prof. Dr. Gerhard -- Head Physician, Stadtroda (Thuringen) Children's Euthanasia Ward.

Kneissler, Pauline – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main for participation in the gassing and fatal injection deaths of mentally ill patients (Geisteskranke) as part of the euthanasia program between Jan 1940 and 1945 at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck, HuPa Hadamar, and HuPa Irsee; convicted and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.042; LG Frankfurt/M. 480128).}

Knigge, Dr. Friedrich -- Physician at Hamburg-Langenhorn Euthanasia Ward for Children.

Koppe, Wilhelm (1896-1975) [SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS und Polizei] -- commander, Sipo/SD Dresden Sept 1936-Oct 1939; HSSPF "Warthe "(Poznan) 9 Oct 1939-9 Nov 1943; HSSPF "Ost" (Krakow) 9 Nov 1943-Apr 1945; HSSPF "Sued" (Munich) Apr 1945-May 1945; Reichstag deputy {arrested while in hiding in 1961 for war crimes by West Germany; released for ill health Aug 1965; charges dismissed in 1966 due to continuous incapacity to stand trial; died at Bonn 2 Jul 1975 (ABR-SS; Allgemeine-SS p. 57; Holo Ency 816).}

Korsch, Edith – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main for participation in the gassing and fatal injection deaths of mentally ill patients (Geisteskranke) as part of the euthanasia program between Jan 1940 and 1945 at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck, HuPa Hadamar, and HuPa Irsee; convicted and sentenced to 3 years and 4 months imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.042; LG Frankfurt/M. 480128).}

Lange, Herbert (1909-1945) [SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer und Kriminalkommissar] -- commander, Sonderkommando Lange; KZK Chelmno (Kulmhof) 1941-1942; Einsatzkommando 2 3 Dec 1941-Mar 1943; RSHA; SD Aachen {killed 20 April 1945 in the fighting for Berlin. (Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 525-6).}

Leu, Dr. Alfred -- neurologist, euthanasia program {acquitted 24 Oct 1951 by a Cologne County court (Hitler's Justice p. 256).}

Linden, Dr. Herbert -- head of the Heredity and Race sub-department of the Department of National Health and plenipotentiary for state hospitals and nursing homes (Reichsbeauftrager fuer die Heil-und Pflegeanstalten) in the Reich Interior Ministry

Lonauer, Dr. Rudolf – director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hartheim Castle euthanasia facility May 1940 (Nazi Mass Murder 18-19; Friedlander 89, 103)

Lückoff or Lueckoff, Wilhelm – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 3 years and 1 month of imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Mauthe, Dr. med. Otto -- euthanasia physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck {convicted 5 Jul 1949 by a French court at Tuebingen of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment (NYT 6 Jul 1949:9:6).}

Mennecke, Dr. Friedrich (1904-1947) [SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer] – joined NSDAP 28 Mar 1932; joined SS 1 May 1932; Oberarzt (Heer); Stab SS-Oberabschnitt "Rhein (on 1 Dec 1937 and on 1 Mar 1938) {taken prisoner by allied forces; died in allied custody 28 Jan 1947 at Butzbach Prison, near Frankfurt/Main (ABR-T-4; Nazi Mass Murder 40).}

Mentz, Willi (c. 1904-?) [SS-Unterscharfűhrer] -- service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar euthanasia facility 1941-summer 1942; chief, agricultural labor squad KL Treblinka summer 1942-Nov 1943; service, KL Sobibor Dec 1943; service, Trieste 1944-1945 {sentenced 24 Aug 1965 to a term of life imprisonment for war crimes (Good Old Days pps. 291, 298-9); or put on trial by a West German court at Duesseldorff opn charges of participation in the lethal gassing of at least 700,000 Bulgarian, German, Greek, Yugoslavian, Austrian, Polish and Czech Jewish and gypsy men, women and children, lethal mistreatment of prisoners, and the killing of prisoners by shooting and hanging, all at KL Treblinka between Jun 1942-Nov 1943; convicted and sentenced 3 Sept 1965 to life imprisonment (NYT 4 Sept 1965:5:1; Verfahren Lfd.Nr.596; LG Düsseldorf 650903; BGH 700630).}

Mittag, Dr. _____

Moos, Erich Karl Friedrich – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Mueller-Brockmueller, Dr. _____

Nitsche, Prof. Dr. med. Paul (?-1948) -- director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna euthanasia facility 1940; director, Reich Work Group of Sanatoria and Nursing Homes (RAG) Dec 1941; medical director, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) 1941-1945 {sentenced to death summer 1947 by an East German court for crimes against humanity arising out of the euthanasia deaths of 80,000 persons; executed at Dresden 25 Mar 1948 (NYT 26 Mar 1948:14:6; Nazi Mass Murder p. 17; Friedlander 66).}

Nohel, _____ -- service (as crematoria attendant/ fireman), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hartheim Castle {put on trial; convicted; sentenced to death and executed (no details) (Dr. Wolfgang Neugebauer, "Mass murder in the castle").}

Oberhauser, Josef Kaspar (1915-?) [SS-Obersturmfűhrer] -- service, KL Oranienburg 1935-1936; service, SS-Totenkopfstandarte "Brandenburg"; service, "Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler" 1939; service (as corpse-burner), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck, HuPa Brandenburg and HuPa Bernburg euthanasia facilities; service, SSPF "Lublin" late 1941-Jul/Aug 1942 and at Lublin airfield camp 1942-1943; staff member for SS-Sturmbannfűhrer Christian Wirth 1942; service, San Saba 1943-1945 {sentenced to 15 years imprisonment 1948 by an East German court at Magdeburg; amnestied Apr 1956; arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Munich "for the crime of acting as an accessory in the common murder of 300,000 people and for his role in the common murder of 150 people" at KL Belzec in 1942; convicted and sentenced to 4 1/2 years imprisonment in 1965 (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.585; LG München I 650121; BGH 651214; Good Old Days 299; Camp Men p. 169).}

Oberheuser, Dr. Herta -- assistant surgeon, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hohenlychen; physician, KL Ravensbrueck {put on trial before an American military tribunal at Frankfort-am-Main 9 Dec 1946 (NYT 9 Dec 1946:8:6; NYT 10 Dec 1946:9:1; NYT 18 Dec 1946:24:4; NYT 11 Jan 1947:2:4; NYT 7 Mar 1947:5:7; convicted 19 Aug 1947 (NYT 20 Aug 1947:1:6) sentenced to 20 years imprisonment 20 Aug 1947 (NYT 21 Aug 1947:3:8; LT 21 Aug 1947:3d) in the "Doctors trial" by an American military tribunal of having ordered, authorized or participated in "medical experiments" on concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war; released Apr 1952. (Snyder Ency p. 69; Holo Ency 1789).}

Pfannmueller, Dr. Hermann -- participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Renno, Dr. Georg – deputy chief, then director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hartheim Castle euthanasia facility {arrested at Frankfort 1963; proceedings dismissed owing to ill health (Wiesenthal File p. 270n; Nazi Mass Murder 18-19; Friedlander 89, 103).}

Reuter, Paul – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 4 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Ruoff, Heinrich -- {indicted by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden 19 Sept 1945 on charges of murdering at least 400 Russian and Polish POWs at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar euthanasia facility between 1 Jul 1944 and 1 Apr 1945 (NYT 9 Oct 1945:3:2; NYT 10 Oct 1945:8:6; NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5; NYT 12 Oct 1945:10:2; NYT 13 Oct 1945:6:3; NYT 16 Oct 1945:6:6); convicted of war crimes 15 Oct 1945 and sentenced to death by hanging (LT 16 Oct 1945:4:d; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression VI, pps. 296-298 [Document 3592-PS]); subsequent fate unknown.}

Schmalenbach, Dr. Kurt – director (perhaps using the code-name "Dr. Blume"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna euthanasia facility (Nazi Mass Murder 19; Friedlander 89, 103)

Schmidt, Dr. med. Walter Eugen [Lieutenant Colonel] – chief physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Eichberg asylum {arrested and put on trial Dec 1946 by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients at HuPa Eichberg between 1941 and 1945 with lethal injections (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftinjektionen) as part of the euthanasia program (NYT 5 Dec 1946:24:5); convicted and sentenced to death (Todesstrafe) (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.011; LG Frankfurt/M. 461221; OLG Frankfurt/M. 470812); subsequent fate unknown.}

Schneider, Prof. Dr. Carl -- professor of neurology and psychiatry at Heidelberg University; participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Nazi Mass Murder 15)

Schrankel, Agnes – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 3 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Schreck, Dr. med. Josef Artur – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Freiburg on charges of participating in the euthanasia program carried out by the Interior Ministry of Baden and various mental health facilities in that German state between Feb 1940 and Jul 1941; convicted and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.211; LG Freiburg/Brsg 500502; LG Freiburg/Brsg 481116; OLG Freiburg/Brsg 491013).}

Schürg or Schuerg, Helene -- service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Eichberg {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients at HuPa Eichberg between 1941 and 1945 with lethal injections (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftinjektionen) as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.011; LG Frankfurt/M. 461221; OLG Frankfurt/M. 470812).}

Schultze, Prof. Dr. Walther (1894-1979) [SA-Obergruppenführer/SS-Gruppenführer/Oberstabsarzt] -- chief SA Physician 1923; Head, Dept. VII, Bavarian Ministry of Justice (from 1933); Ministerialdirektor and head, Public Health Dept., Bavarian Interior Ministry (from Nov.1933); SD-Hauptamt (as of 1 Dec 1937 and 30 Jan 1942); Leader of the Association of University Lecturers [Reichsdozentfűhrer] 1935-1943; staff, SS-Oberabschnitt "Sud" (as of 9 Nov 1944); Reichstag deputy {member, Freikorps von Epp; convicted May 1960 by West German court for complicity in euthanasia killings of 380 persons; sentenced to 4 years imprisonment; stated "Never for one moment did I feel that I had committed an injustice or crime."; died at Krailing Aug 1979. (Who's Who pps. 280-1; Encyclopedia of the Third Reich p. 848; ABR-SS).}

Schumann, Dr. Horst (1906-1983) [SS-Sturmbannfűhrer] -- director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Graefeneck euthanasia facility Jan 1940-summer 1940; director, HuPa Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna euthanasia facility Apr 1940; conducted sterilization and castration experiments at KL Auschwitz 1942, 1944 {escaped West German arrest warrant 1951; worked as ship's doctor 1951-1955; Sudan 1955-1959; Ghana 1959-1966 (as an advisor to the Ghanaian Health Ministry); requests by West Germany for extradition from Ghana refused in 1964 (NYT 15 May 1964:2:2); renewed requests for extradition made by West Germany Aug 1966 (NYT 10 Aug 1966:6:3; NYT 13 Aug 1966:4:7; NYT 17 Sept 1966:10:6); decision to extradite to West Germany announced 4 Nov 1966 by Ghanaian government (NYT 5 Nov 1966:3:2); extradited to West Germany; put on trial for war crimes Sept 1971; trial suspended due to ill health Apr 1971; died 5 May 1983 at Frankfurt-am-Main (Auschwitz Chronicles pps. 821-2; Camp Men p. 217; Friedlander 89, 103; Nazi Mass Murder 18-19, 27).}

Senft, Andreas -- service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Eichberg {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients at HuPa Eichberg between 1941 and 1945 with lethal injections (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftinjektionen) as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.011; LG Frankfurt/M. 461221; OLG Frankfurt/M. 470812).}

Sprauer, Ludwig – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Freiburg on charges of participating in the euthanasia program carried out by the Interior Ministry of Baden and various mental health facilities in that German state between Feb 1940 and Jul 1941; convicted and sentenced to 11 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.211; LG Freiburg/Brsg 500502; LG Freiburg/Brsg 481116; OLG Freiburg/Brsg 491013).}

Stangl, Franz Paul (1898 or 1908-1971) [SS-Hauptsturmfűhrer] -- police superintendent, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Schloss Hartheim euthanasia facility 1940; commandant, KL Sobibor May-Sept 1942; commandant, KL Treblinka Sept 1942-Aug 1943; service, Einsatzkommando Reinhard at Trieste, Italy {captured by American troops 1945; turned over to Austrian court at Linz for prosecution for euthanasia activities; escaped from Glaisenbach POW camp in late 1947 or 1948; fled to Italy; fled to Syria 1948; to Brazil 1950 or 1951; arrested by Brazilian police 28 Feb 1967 at Sao Paolo (NYT 3 Mar 1967:1:8; NYT 5 Mar 1967:21:1); extradition requested by Austria 3 Mar 1967 (NYT 4 Mar 1967:7:2); extradition requested by West Germany 14 Mar 1967 (NYT 15 Mar 1967:25:1); extradition requested Apr 1967 by Poland (NYT 19 Apr 1967:17:3); fights extradition (NYT 25 Apr 1967:3:2; NYT 28 Apr 1967:19:1; NYT 30 Apr 1967:21:5); impending extradition to West Germany announced by Brazilian government 7 Jun 1967 (NYT 8 Jun 1967:9:1); extradited 23 Jun 1967 to West Germany (NYT 24 Jun 1967:5:4); arrested 24 Jun 1967 by West German authorities at Duesseldorff and held for trial on charges of complicity in the murders of 700,000 persons (NYT 25 Jun 1967:5:1); put on trial by a West German court at Duesseldorff 13 May 1970 (NYT 14 May 1970:4:4; NYT 30 May 1970:13:4); convicted of complicity in at least 400,000 murders of Bulgarian, Greek, Yugoslavian, Dutch, Austrian and Polish Jews and gypsys (Zigeuner) between Apr 1942 and Aug 1943; convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment 22 Dec 1970 for war crimes by a West German court in Duesseldorf (NYT 23 Dec 1970:1:5; Verfahren Lfd.Nr.746; LG Düsseldorf 701222); died in prison 28 Jun 1971 (NYT 29 Jun 1971:40:4). (Into That Darkness 21; Who's Who pps. 295-7; Encyclopedia of the Third Reich pps. 910-1; Camp Men p. 228; SS: Roll of Infamy pps. 162-3).}

Stegmann, Dr. med. Alfons -- euthanasia physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck {convicted 5 Jul 1949 by a French court at Tuebingen of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 2 years imprisonment (NYT 6 Jul 1949:9:6).}

Steinmeyer, Dr. Theo

Tauscher, Fritz [Polizeioberleutnant] -- administrator, HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein euthanasia facility; service, KL Belzec Oct 1942-Mar 1943 {suicide in custody 1965 (Good Old Days p. 302).}

Thomas, Lydia – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

Tillmann, Friedrich – {charged by German authorities with war crimes arising out of the euthanasia program; died when he fell or jumped from an office building in Cologne 12 or 17 Feb 1964 (NYT 18 Feb 1964:3:6).}

Tuerk, Dr. med. Marianne – physician, Steinhof mental hospital near Vienna {arrested and put on trial by an Austrian court on war crimes charges; sentenced 19 Jul 1946 to 10 years imprisonment by the Vienna People's Court for the murders of more than 240 mentally defective children in the course of an euthanasia program at the Vienna municipal clinic (NYT 20 Jul 1946:5:4; LT 20 Jul 1946:4c).}

Ullrich, Dr. Aquilin – director (under the code-name "Dr. Schmitt"), HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Brandenburg-Havel euthanasia facility 1940 (Friedlander 89, 103)

Unger, Dr. Hellmuth – participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Vorberg, Reinhold -- administrative director of the Fuehrer Chancellory; head, Charitable Society for the Transportation of the Sick (Gekrat); under the code-name "Hintertal", responsible for transportation of mentally ill patients to the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) killing facilities (Nazi Mass Murder 17-18) {probably identifiable with " Vor., Reinhold Paul Karl Robert", arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of participation in the killing of mentally ill patients as part of the euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) 1939-1945 while serving in the Fuehrer Chancellery (Kanzlei des Führers), and with participation in the killings of unfit and invalid prisoners in German concentration camps in special handling action "14f13" (Sonderbehandlungsaktion '14f13'); convicted and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.697; LG Frankfurt/M. 681220; BGH 721027).}

Wahlmann, Dr. med. Adolf -- physician, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {indicted by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden 19 Sept 1945 on charges of murdering Russian and Polish POWs at Hadamar between 1 Jul 1944 and 1 Apr 1945; put on trial 8 Oct 1945 (NYT 9 Oct 1945:3:2; NYT 10 Oct 1945:8:6; NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5; NYT 12 Oct 1945:10:2; NYT 13 Oct 1945:6:3; NYT 16 Oct 1945:6:6); convicted of war crimes 15 Oct 1945 and sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labor (LT 16 Oct 1945:4:d; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression VI, pps. 296-298 [Document 3592-PS]); arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to death (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020); subsequent fate unknown.}

Wentzler, Dr. Ernst – participant, euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) (Friedlander 66)

Weber, Dr. Mathilde

Wernicke, Dr. Hilde (c. 1899-1947) – physician, HuPA Meseritz-Obrawalde {arrested and put on trial 1946 by a West German court at Berlin for crimes committed in 1943-1944 at HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Meseritz-Obrawalde, Poland, consisting of the euthanasia killings of mentally defective and insane patients by injection; convicted and sentenced to death (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.003; LG Berlin 460325 [11 Ks 8/46]; KG 460824 [Ss 48/46]); beheaded at Berlin 14 Jan 1947 (NYT 15 Jan 1947:14:6).}

Wesse, Hermann – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Kalmenhof {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients at HuPa Kalmenhof between 1941 and 1945 in the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to death (Todesstrafe) (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.014; LG Frankfurt/M. 470130; OLG Frankfurt/M. 480416); arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Düsseldorf on charges of participating in the euthanasia program in the German provinces of the Rhineland (Rheinprovinz) between 1940 and 1945; convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.102; LG Düsseldorf 481124; OGHBZ 490723); subsequent fate unknown.}

Widmann, Dr. Albert Gottlob (c. 1912-?) [SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer] – chief chemist, Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei); service, Reich Security Main Office Criminal Technical Institute (RSHA Kriminaltechnisches Institut) {arrested and put on trial 1962 by a West German court at Düsseldorf on charges of participating in the deaths of prisoners from KL Sachsenhausen on 11 Sept 1944, during experiments with poisoned ammunition; convicted and sentenced to 3 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.542; LG Düsseldorf 621010; LG Düsseldorf 610516; BGH 620221); arrested and put on trial 15 Aug 1967 by a West German court at Stuttgart on charges of killing mentally ill patients in bunkers near Minsk with explosives and gassing mentally ill patients at the Mogilev asylum in Sept 1941, and supervising tests of gassing vans for the RSHA in 1942 (NYT 15 Aug 1967:18:4); convicted and sentenced 15 Sept 1967 to 6 ½ years imprisonment (NYT 16 Sept 1967:2:2; Verfahren Lfd.Nr.658; LG Stuttgart 670915).}

Wieczorek, Helene (c. 1904-1947) – nurse, HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Meseritz-Obrawalde {arrested and put on trial 1946 by a West German court at Berlin for crimes committed in 1943-1944 at HuPA Meseritz-Obrawalde, Poland, consisting of the euthanasia killings of mentally defective and insane patients by injection; convicted and sentenced to death (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.003; LG Berlin 460325 [11 Ks 8/46]; KG 460824 [Ss 48/46]); beheaded at Berlin 14 Jan 1947 (NYT 15 Jan 1947:14:6).}

Willig, Karl -- {indicted by an American military tribunal at Wiesbaden 19 Sept 1945 on charges of murdering at least 400 Russian and Polish POWs at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar euthanasia facility between 1 Jul 1944 and 1 Apr 1945 (NYT 9 Oct 1945:3:2; NYT 10 Oct 1945:8:6; NYT 11 Oct 1945:4:5; NYT 12 Oct 1945:10:2; NYT 13 Oct 1945:6:3; NYT 16 Oct 1945:6:6); convicted of war crimes 15 Oct 1945 and sentenced to death by hanging (LT 16 Oct 1945:4:d; Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression VI, pps. 296-298 [Document 3592-PS]); subsequent fate unknown.}

Wirth, Christian (1885-1944) [SS-Sturmbannfuehrer und Kriminalkommissar] -- head of the homicide branch in the Stuttgart police department 1939; head of the HuPA (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hartheim asylum near Linz 1940-1941; commandant, KL Belzec 1941-1942 {reported KIA by partisans in ambush near Fiume 26 May 1944 (SS: Roll of Infamy p. 178; Camp Men p. 259; Nazi Mass murder 40).}

Worthmann, Dr. Ewald – director, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Sonnenstein-bei-Pirna euthanasia facility (Nazi Mass Murder 19; Friedlander 89, 103)

Zachow, Minna – {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main for participation in the gassing and fatal injection deaths of mentally ill patients (Geisteskranke) as part of the euthanasia program between Jan 1940 and 1945 at HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Grafeneck, HuPa Hadamar, and HuPa Irsee; convicted and sentenced to 3 ½ years imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.042; LG Frankfurt/M. 480128).}

Zielke, Christel – service, HuPa (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) Hadamar {arrested and put on trial by a West German court at Frankfurt-am-Main on charges of killing mentally ill patients by gas and lethal injection (Tötung von Geisteskranken durch Giftgas und Giftinjektion) between 1941 and 1945 at HuPa Hadamar as part of the euthanasia program; convicted and sentenced to 3 years and 9 months imprisonment (Verfahren Lfd.Nr.017; LG Frankfurt/M. 470321; OLG Frankfurt/M. 481020).}

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