The 11. Armee was formed 5 October 1940 as Kommandostab Leipzig; from 23 April 1941 it was designated Kommandostab München. From 24 May 1941-22 June 1941, the 11. Armee was also known as the Oberkommando der Truppen des deutschen Heeres in Rumänien. After taking part in the liberation of Bessarabia, the 11. Armee conquered the Crimea and captured Sevastopol. It was restructured into Heeresgruppe Don on 21 November 1942.

The 11. Armee was reformed 26 January 1945 from elements of the staff of the Oberkommando Oberrhein (in some sources this second formation is listed as Armeegruppe Steiner or Armee-Abteilung Steiner). It conducted Operation “Sonnenwende” (Solstice) in February 1945, an unsuccessful counteroffensive from the Stargard sector to blunt the Soviet spearhead aimed at Berlin. Later that month, the headquarters 11. Armee was placed at the disposal of Heeresgruppe Weichsel without troops assigned. It was reconstituted 2 April 1945 to lead an attack from Kassel to open a corridor to Heeresgruppe B which was encircled in the Ruhr Pocket. After launching a few small counterattacks against the advance of the U.S. Third Army, the 11. Armee withdrew into the Harz Mountains where, after heavy fighting, General Lucht and his staff surrendered on 23 April 1945.

Known war crimes

Soldiers of the 11. Armee were placed at the disposal of the Sonderkommando 11b in the Crimea, this command was part of Einsatzgruppe D and one of the units used not for combat operations but to kill Jews and others seen as undesirable.
The forces at the disposal of the commander of the town, 2,320 men, as well as 55 men from the Military Police and 20 men of the Secret Field Police will be placed at the disposal of Sonderkommando 11b. (2)

During the Nuremberg trials the commander of Sonderkommando 11b, SS-Sturmbannführer Dr. jur. Karl Rudolph Werner Braune, stated the below about the demands from the 11. Armee in December 1941.
On one of the first days of December in the evening, the liaison officer of the 11th Army came to see Mr. Ohlendorf [commander of Einsatzgruppe D] and told him that the army demanded the carrying out of the executions before Christmas. (3)

Commanders

Generaloberst Eugen Ritter von Schobert (25 Oct 1940 - 12 Sep 1941) (KIA) (1)
Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Lewinski genannt von Manstein (13 Sep 1941 - 21 Nov 1942)
(Reformed)
SS-Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner (Jan 1945 - 5 Mar 1945)
Unknown (5 Mar 1945 - 2 Apr 1945)
General der Infanterie Otto Hitzfeld (2 Apr 1945 - 8 Apr 1945)
General der Artillerie Walther Lucht (8 Apr 1945 - 23 Apr 1945)

Chiefs of Staff

Generalmajor Otto Wöhler (5 Oct 1940 - 1 Apr 1942)
Unknown (1 Apr 1942 - 12 May 1942)
Generalmajor Friedrich Schulz (12 May 1942 - 21 Nov 1942)
(Reformed)
Oberst Fritz Estor (1 Feb 1945 - 23 Apr 1945)

Operations Officers (Ia)

Oberst Theodor Busse (25 Oct 1940 - 21 Nov 1942)
(Reformed)
Oberstleutnant Rudolf Danckworth (15 Feb 1945 - 5 Apr 1945)
Oberstleutnant Hans Roschmann (5 Apr 1945 - 23 Apr 1945)

Area of operations

Germany (Oct 1940 - May 1941)
Eastern front, southern sector (June 1941 - Sep 1942)
Eastern front, northern sector (Sep 1942 - Nov 1942)
(Reformed)
East Pomerania (Jan 1945 - Mar 1945)
Western front (Apr 1945)

Holders of high awards

Holders of the German Cross in Gold (2)
- Busse, Theodor, 24.05.1942, Oberst i.G., Ia AOK 11
- Wöhler, Otto, 26.01.1942, Oberst i.G., Chef d. Gen.St. AOK 11
Holders of the German Cross in Silver (3)
- Boehringer, Gustav, 30.09.1942, Generalmajor, Armee-Pionierführer AOK 11
- Hauck, Friedrich-Wilhelm, 06.07.1942, Oberst i.G., OQu AOK 11
- Mueller, Ernst, 20.12.1942, Oberst, Armee-Nachrichtenführer AOK 11
Holders of the Romanian Order of Michael the Brave, 2nd Class (Orden “Michael der Tapfere” II. Klasse) (2)
- Lewinski von, gen. v. Manstein, Erich, Königl. Dekret Nr. 2029 / 16.07.1942, GenO, OB AOK 11
- Schobert Ritter von, Eugen, Königl. Dekret Nr. 2786 / 08.10.1941, GenO, OB AOK 11

Holders of high awards (Armee-Truppen)

Holders of the Commendation Certificate of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army for Shooting Down Aircraft (3)
- Bittermann, [first name not listed], 16.05.1942 (118), Obergefreiter, 1./Beob.Abt. 31 / AOK 11
- Hochschwarzer, [first name not listed], 19.07.1942 (185), Obergefreiter, 8./Geb.Art.Rgt. 111 / Heerestruppe – AOK 11
- Volz, Artur, 28.11.1942 (262), Gefreiter, 6./s.Werfer-Rgt. 1 / AOK 11
Holders of the Romanian Order of Michael the Brave, 3rd Class (Orden “Michael der Tapfere” III. Klasse) (1)
- Schiel, Hans Dietrich, Königl. Dekret Nr. 1362 / 08.05.1942, Hauptmann, Chef 3./Pi.Btl. 70 (AOK 11)
Unit-Level Commendation Certificate of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army for Shooting Down Aircraft (2)
- Beobachtungs-Abteilung 29 / AOK 11
-- Date/Place of Downing: 07.10.1941 bei Dede
-- Award Date: 01.11.1941 (17)
- II. Zug/2./Kraftwagen-Transport-Abteilung 501 / AOK 11
-- Date/Place of Downing: 31.05.1942 bei Bijuk-Lambat
-- Award Date: 24.09.1942 (232)

Order of battle (3 Sep 1941)

At the disposal of the 11. Armee
- 170. Infanterie-Division
- 50. Infanterie-Division
- SS-Division Leibstandarte SS “Adolf Hitler”
LIV. Armeekorps
- 72. Infanterie-Division
- 73. Infanterie-Division
XXX. Armeekorps
- 46. Infanterie-Division
- 22. Infanterie-Division
XXXXIX. Gebirgs-Armeekorps
- 2. Gebirgs-Division
- 4. Gebirgs-Division

Romanian 3rd Army (subordinated to the 11. Armee)
Romanian Mountain Corps
- Romanian 1st Mountain Brigade
- Romanian 2nd Mountain Brigade
- Romanian 4th Mountain Brigade
Romanian Cavalry Corps
- Romanian 5th Cavalry Brigade
- Romanian 6th Cavalry Brigade
- Romanian 8th Cavalry Brigade

Order of battle (2 Jan 1942)

At the disposal of the 11. Armee
- Romanian 18th Infantry Division
LIV. Armeekorps
- 22. Infanterie-Division
- 132. Infanterie-Division
- 24. Infanterie-Division
- 50. Infanterie-Division
XXX. Armeekorps
- Romanian 1st Mountain Brigade
- 2/3 72. Infanterie-Division
XXXXII. Armeekorps
- 170. Infanterie-Division
- 46. Infanterie-Division
- 1/3 72. Infanterie-Division
- 1/3 73. Infanterie-Division
- Romanian Motorized Regiment
Romanian Mountain Corps (subordinated to XXXXII. Armeekorps)
- Romanian 4th Mountain Brigade
- Romanian 8th Cavalry Brigade
- Romanian 3rd Motorized Regiment

Order of battle (22 Apr 1942)

At the disposal of the 11. Armee
- 72. Infanterie-Division
- 2/3 Romanian 10th Infantry Division
- 22. Panzer-Division
- 2/3 Romanian 19th Infantry Division
- Romanian VII Corps
LIV. Armeekorps
- 22. Infanterie-Division
- Romanian 18th Infantry Division + 1/3 Romanian 10th Infantry Division
- 24. Infanterie-Division
- Romanian 1st Mountain Division
Romainian Mountain Corps
- Gruppe Schröder (Küstenschutz)
- Romanian 4th Mountain Division
XXX. Armeekorps
- 170. Infanterie-Division (part)
- 132. Infanterie-Division
- Romanian 3rd Cavalry Regiment
- 50. Infanterie-Division
- 28. leichte Infanterie-Division
XXXXII. Armeekorps
- 46. Infanterie-Division + 1/3 Romanian 19th Infantry Division
- Romanian 8th Cavalry Division
- 170. Infanterie-Division (most) + 1/3 73. Infanterie-Division
Befehlshaber d. Landengen
- Romanian Motorized Regiment
- Landesschützen-Bataillon 286

Order of battle (24 June 1942)

At the disposal of the 11. Armee
- Befehlshaber d. Landengen
LIV. Armeekorps
- 1/3 46. Infanterie-Division (in transit)
- 1/3 132. Infanterie-Division + 1/3 46. Infanterie-Division
- 24. Infanterie-Division
- 22. Infanterie-Division + 1/3 73. Infanterie-Division
- 50. Infanterie-Division + 1/3 46. Infanterie-Division
- Romanian 4th Mountain Division
Romainian Mountain Corps
- Romanian 18th Infantry Division
- Romanian 1st Mountain Division
XXX. Armeekorps
- 72. Infanterie-Division
- 170. Infanterie-Division
- 28. leichte Infanterie-Division + 1 Regiment 213. Sicherungs-Division + 1 Regiment 444. Sicherungs-Division
- 1/3 125. Infanterie-Division
- Stab Schröder with 1 Regiment 444. Sicherungs-Division
Gruppe Mattenklott (XXXXII. Armeekorps)
- Gruppe Ritter (Küstenschutz)
- Romanian 8th Cavalry Division
- Romanian 10th Infantry Division
- Romanian 19th Infantry Division
- Romanian Motorized Regiment
- 22. Panzer-Division (part)
- 1/3 132. Infanterie-Division

Order of battle (19 Feb 1945)

At the disposal of the 11. Armee
- Kampfgruppe 163. Infanterie-Division (in transit)
Stellvertretendes II. Armeekorps (Wehrkreis II)
- 9. Fallschirmjäger-Division
- Gruppe Denecke
- Kommandant Verteidigungsbereich Stettin
- Kommandant Verteidigungsbereich Swinemünde
XXXIX. Panzerkorps
- Panzer-Division “Holstein”
- 28. SS-Freiwilligen-Grenadier-Division “Wallonien”
- 10. SS-Panzer-Division “Frundsberg”
- 4. SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division
III. (germ.) SS-Panzerkorps
- 27. SS-Freiwilligen-Grenadier-Division “Langemark”
- 11. SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Division “Nordland”
- Gruppe Voigt
- 23. SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Division “Nederland” (niederlandische Nr. 1)
- 281. Infanterie-Division
Korpsgruppe Munzel
- Führer-Begleit-Division
- Führer-Grenadier-Division
X. SS-Armeekorps
- Divisionsstab z.b.V. 402
- 5. Jäger-Division
Korps Tettau (Division z.b.V. 604)
- Eins. Division Bärwalde
- Eins. Division Köslin

Order of battle (12 Apr 1945)

LXVI. Armeekorps
- Kampfgruppe 116. Panzer-Division
- Kampfgruppe 9. Panzer-Division
- SS-Brigade “Westfalen”
- 277. Volks-Grenadier-Division (remnants)
Stellvertretendes IX. Armeekorps (Wehrkreis IX)
- Kampfgruppe 326. Volks-Grenadier-Division
- Kampfgruppe 26. Volks-Grenadier-Division
LXVII. Armeekorps
- Kampfgruppe Großkreuz
- Kampfgruppe Heidenreich
- Kampfgruppe Ettner
- Kampfgruppe Feller

Notable members

Otto Hitzfeld (Active in the resistance against Hitler)

Engineers building a bridge across the river Pruth
armee-11-pruth-1
(Courtesy of Bundesarchiv/Wikimedia, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Germany)

Engineers building a bridge across the river Pruth
armee-11-pruth-2
(Courtesy of Bundesarchiv/Wikimedia, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Germany)

A head from a Lenin statue has been seized on order of the 11. Armee in the Crimea
armee-11-lenin
(Courtesy of Bundesarchiv/Wikimedia, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Germany)

Footnotes

1. Eugen Ritter von Schobert was killed 12 September 1941 when his Fieseler Storch aircraft landed in a Soviet minefield along the road Kanovka - Antonovka near Nikolajev / SU. His pilot, Hauptmann (Lw) Suwalek, was also killed.
2. The testimony of Generalmajor Otto Wöhler during the Nuremberg trials, NMT proceedings vol. 10, pp. 1305-06.
3. The testimony of Dr. jur. Karl Rudolph Werner Braune during the Nuremberg trials, NMT proceedings vol. 4, p. 323-24.

Sources used

Research by Shawn Bohannon
NMT proceedings vol. 4, p. 323-24
NMT proceedings vol. 10, pp. 1305-06
Roger James Bender & Hugh Page Taylor - Uniforms, Organization and History of the Waffen-SS, vol 2
Dr. K-G Klietmann - Die Waffen-SS: eine Dokumentation
Charles B. MacDonald - The Last Offensive – The United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of Operations
French Maclean - Quiet Flows the Rhine: German General Officer Casualties in World War II
Samuel W. Mitcham Jr - The Panzer Legions: A guide to the German Army Tank Divisions of WWII and Their Commanders
Marc J. Rikmenspoel - Waffen-SS Encyclopedia
Georg Tessin - Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht 1933-1945
Mark C. Yerger - Waffen-SS Commanders: The Army, corps and divisional leaders of a legend (2 vol)
Earl F. Ziemke - Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East

Reference material on this unit

Marcel Stein - Die 11. Armee und die "Endlösung" 1941/42: Eine Dokumentensammlung mit Kommentaren

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